Corpus Linguistics II (Costerus NS 57) (Costerus New Series)

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Evaluating English Sentences in a Logical Model. Joyce Friedman, Douglas B. Moran, David S. Recovering Implicit Information. Martha S. Palmer, Deborah A. Dahl, Rebecca J.

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Back Matter Pages Our collaboration began within the Linguistics in Documentation group of the FID and continued in the framework of the! In this collaboration was strengthened when, at CO LING in Prague, I was invited by Don to join him in the organization of a series of workshops with participants of the various communities interested in the study, development, and use of computational lexica.

Parsing Syntax Text Verb communication computational linguistics corpus heuristics intelligence knowledge base language linguistics machine translation natural language semantics. Buy options. Michael P. Sissenwine noaa. Washington, D.

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Feleti P. David J. Doulman Secretary of the Consultation david. Grant Bryden Fishery Liaison Officer grant. Janet C. Webb Meetings Officer janet. Marianne Guyonnet Secretary marianne. Indra Gondowarsito Secretary indra. In the context of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and its overall objective of sustainable fisheries, the issue of illegal, unreported and unregulated IUU fishing in world fisheries is of serious and increasing concern. IUU fishing undermines efforts to conserve and manage fish stocks in all capture fisheries.

When confronted with IUU fishing, national and regional fisheries management organizations can fail to achieve management goals. This situation leads to the loss of both short and long-term social and economic opportunities and to negative effects on food security and environmental protection. IUU fishing can lead to the collapse of a fishery or seriously impair efforts to rebuild stocks that have already been depleted. Existing international instruments addressing IUU fishing have not been effective due to a lack of political will, priority, capacity and resources to ratify or accede to and implement them.

The Committee was concerned about information presented indicating increases in IUU fishing, including fishing vessels flying "flags of convenience".

Shortly afterwards, an FAO Ministerial Meeting on Fisheries in March declared that, without prejudice to the rights and obligations of States under international law, FAO "will develop a global plan of action to deal effectively with all forms of illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing including fishing vessels flying "flags of convenience" through coordinated efforts by States, FAO, relevant regional fisheries management bodies and other relevant international agencies such as the International Maritime Organization IMO , as provided in Article IV of the Code of Conduct.

The IPOA is voluntary. The IPOA responds to fisheries specific issues and nothing in it prejudices the positions of States in other fora. This document is a further commitment by all States to implement the Code of Conduct. The objective of the IPOA is to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing by providing all States with comprehensive, effective and transparent measures by which to act, including through appropriate regional fisheries management organizations established in accordance with international law.

Due consideration should be given to the special requirements of developing countries in accordance with Article 5 of the Code of Conduct. An important element in successful implementation will be close and effective coordination and consultation, and the sharing of information to reduce the incidence of IUU fishing, among States and relevant regional and global organizations.

The full participation of stakeholders in combating IUU fishing, including industry, fishing communities, and non-governmental organizations, should be encouraged. In taking such an approach, States should embrace measures building on the primary responsibility of the flag State and using all available jurisdiction in accordance with international law, including port State measures, coastal State measures, market-related measures and measures to ensure that nationals do not support or engage in IUU fishing. States are encouraged to use all these measures, where appropriate, and to cooperate in order to ensure that measures are applied in an integrated manner.

The action plan should address all economic, social and environmental impacts of IUU fishing. States should give full effect to relevant norms of international law, in particular as reflected in the UN Convention, in order to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. Those States that have not ratified, accepted or acceded to these relevant international instruments should not act in a manner inconsistent with these instruments.

States should implement fully and effectively all relevant international fisheries instruments which they have ratified, accepted or acceded to. States should fully and effectively implement the Code of Conduct and its associated International Plans of Action. States whose nationals fish on the high seas in fisheries not regulated by a relevant regional fisheries management organization should fully implement their obligations under Part VII of the UN Convention to take measures with respect to their nationals as may be necessary for the conservation of the living resources of the high seas.

National legislation should address in an effective manner all aspects of IUU fishing.

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National legislation should address, inter alia , evidentiary standards and admissibility including, as appropriate, the use of electronic evidence and new technologies. In the light of relevant provisions of the UN Convention, and without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the flag State on the high seas, each State should, to the greatest extent possible, take measures or cooperate to ensure that nationals subject to their jurisdiction do not support or engage in IUU fishing. All States should cooperate to identify those nationals who are the operators or beneficial owners of vessels involved in IUU fishing.

States should discourage their nationals from flagging fishing vessels under the jurisdiction of a State that does not meet its flag State responsibilities. States should take measures consistent with international law in relation to vessels without nationality on the high seas involved in IUU fishing.

States should ensure that sanctions for IUU fishing by vessels and, to the greatest extent possible, nationals under its jurisdiction are of sufficient severity to effectively prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing and to deprive offenders of the benefits accruing from such fishing. This may include the adoption of a civil sanction regime based on an administrative penalty scheme.

States should ensure the consistent and transparent application of sanctions. All possible steps should be taken, consistent with international law, to prevent, deter and eliminate the activities of non-cooperating States to a relevant regional fisheries management organization which engage in IUU fishing.

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States should, to the exent possible in their national law, avoid conferring economic support, including subsidies, to companies, vessels or persons that are involved in IUU fishing. States should undertake comprehensive and effective monitoring, control and surveillance MCS of fishing from its commencement, through the point of landing, to final destination, including by:. States should develop and implement, within two years of the adoption of the IPOA, national plans of action to further achieve the objectives of the IPOA and give full effect to its provisions as an integral part of their fisheries management programmes and budgets.

These plans should also include, as appropriate, actions to implement initiatives adopted by relevant regional fisheries management organizations to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing. In doing so, States should encourage the full participation and engagement of all interested stakeholders, including industry, fishing communities and non-governmental organizations. At least every four years after the adoption of their national plans of action, States should review the implementation of these plans for the purpose of identifying cost-effective strategies to increase their effectiveness and to take into account their reporting obligations to FAO under Part VII of the IPOA.

States should ensure that national efforts to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing are internally coordinated. States should coordinate their activities and cooperate directly, and as appropriate through relevant regional fisheries management organizations, in preventing, deterring and eliminating IUU fishing. In particular, States should:. In the light of Article VI of the Compliance Agreement, flag States should make available to FAO and, as appropriate, to other States and relevant regional or international organizations, information about vessels deleted from their records or whose authorization to fish has been cancelled and to the extent possible, the reasons therefor.

In order to facilitate cooperation and exchange of information, each State and regional or international organization should nominate and publicize initial formal contact points.


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Flag States should consider entering into agreements or arrangements with other States and otherwise cooperate for the enforcement of applicable laws and conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level. States should publicize widely, including through cooperation with other States, full details of IUU fishing and actions taken to eliminate it, in a manner consistent with any applicable confidentiality requirements. States should endeavour to make available the technical capacity and resources which are needed to implement the IPOA.

This should include, where appropriate, the establishment of special funds at the national, regional or global level. In this respect, international cooperation should play an important role. States should ensure that fishing vessels entitled to fly their flag do not engage in or support IUU fishing. A flag State should ensure, before it registers a fishing vessel, that it can exercise its responsibility to ensure that the vessel does not engage in IUU fishing. Flag States should avoid flagging vessels with a history of non-compliance except where:.

All States involved in a chartering arrangement, including flag States and other States that accept such an arrangement, should, within the limits of their respective jurisdictions, take measures to ensure that chartered vessels do not engage in IUU fishing. Flag States should deter vessels from reflagging for the purposes of non-compliance with conservation and management measures or provisions adopted at a national, regional or global level.

To the extent practicable, the actions and standards flag States adopt should be uniform to avoid creating incentives for vessel owners to reflag their vessels to other States. Paris: L'Harmattan, London : Brunel University Press, Davis, Peter H. London: Continuum, Encyclopedia of Postcolonial Studies. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press forthcoming. Postcolonial Hybridizations of Dramatic Realism.

Brussels: P. Volume 85, number 2, April Deel 2: Proza. Andere Continenten. Conlon eds. Leuven: Acco, Carlyle in de marges van het marxisme. Jaarboek voor Literatuurwetenschap 2 , Deel 1: Proza - de Britse Eilanden , eds. Journal of Pragmatics 36 3 : TEXT 24 4 : Hollebrandse, A. Vet eds.

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Crosslinguistic views on tense, aspect, and modality Cahiers Chronos Amsterdam: Rodopi. Essays offered to C. Ross Edinburgh University Press, , pp. Available on africultures.

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